Proximity Ligation Analysis of protein-protein interactions between SMAD1 and GLI3. HeLa cells were stained with anti-SMAD1 rabbit purified polyclonal 1:1200 and anti-GLI3 mouse monoclonal antibody 1:50. Each red dot represents the detection of protein-protein interaction complex, and nuclei were counterstained with DAPI (blue).
The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the SMAD, a family of proteins similar to the gene products of the Drosophila gene 'mothers against decapentaplegic' (Mad) and the C. elegans gene Sma. SMAD proteins are signal transducers and transcriptional modulators that mediate multiple signaling pathways. This protein mediates the signals of the bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), which are involved in a range of biological activities including cell growth, apoptosis, morphogenesis, development and immune responses. In response to BMP ligands, this protein can be phosphorylated and activated by the BMP receptor kinase. The phosphorylated form of this protein forms a complex with SMAD4, which is important for its function in the transcription regulation. This protein is a target for SMAD-specific E3 ubiquitin ligases, such as SMURF1 and SMURF2, and undergoes ubiquitination and proteasome-mediated degradation. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding the same protein have been observed. [provided by RefSeq
MAD, mothers against decapentaplegic homolog 1,Mad-related protein 1,SMAD, mothers against DPP homolog 1,Sma- and Mad-related protein 1,TGF-beta signaling protein 1,mothers against DPP homolog 1,transforming growth factor-beta signaling protein 1