VHH antibody, also known as Camelid single domain antibody (sdAb), is the recombinant variable domain derived from camelid heavy-chain-only antibody. This configuration confers some unique properties. The small size and high stability of VHH antibodies make it a promising tool for disease diagnosis and treatment. VHH antibodies can penetrate tissue more easily and target difficult epitopes hidden in the protein structure. Additionally, VHH antibodies express well in many host systems, making it cost-effective for large-scale manufacturing.

Abnova offers the NanoAb™ service for the production of target-specific VHH antibodies from the camelid VHH library. Using advanced camelid VHH library screening technology, we screen the library and isolate the VHH clones for your required antigens. Positive clones are sequenced and validated by ELISA. The selected clones will then be introduced into the mammalian expression vector for scalable VHH antibody production, suitable for many downstream applications. We guarantee the bioactivity of NanoAb™ VHH antibodies expressed in mammalian cells.


NanoAb_workflow.jpg (463 KB)



Naïve Camelid VHH Library

Immune Library

Library Size

1.2 x 1012

1.2 x 1013

Required Screening Antigen Amount

0.6 mg

3.5 mg

Lead Time

8-10 weeks

22-24 weeks


  1. Phage validation through phage ELISA data
  2. Up to 5 different VHH sequences
  3. Up to 1 purified VHH, approximately 0.2 mg per VHH
  1. cDNA 150ug
  2. VHH library 3-5ml
  3. Phage validation through phage ELISA data
  4. Up to 8 different VHH sequences
  5. Up to 1 purified VHH, approximately 0.2 mg per VHH


  • Small Size

  • Superior Stability

  • Low Immunogenicity

  • High Affinity and Specificity

  • Fast Blood Clearance

  • Versatile Production

  • Easy Multimerization (Multivalency/Multiparatopicity/Multispecificity)

  • Easy Conjugation

  • Robustness in Bioengineering

  • Applications Across Fields


VHH Antibody vs. Conventional Mab and Pab


VHH Antibody




12 - 15 kD

Approximately 150 kD

Approximately 150 kD

Required Antigen Amount

≦1 mg

≦4 mg

≦4 mg


Camelid VHH library screening

Hybridoma technology

Harvested in antiserum


High stability to heat, pH, and denaturing agents

Thermal instability

Biological instability

Lot-to-Lot Consistency

Very high



 Lead Time

8-24 weeks

16-24 weeks

4-12 weeks



CD8A VHH Humanized Monoclonal Antibodies

Western Blot

NanoAb_CD8A_WB.jpg (63 KB)


Flow Cytometry

NanoAb_CD8A_flow.jpg (223 KB)



Human EpCAM VHH Phage Supernatant

Flow Cytometry

 Service_NanoAb_EpCAM_SUP.jpg (64 KB)



Mouse CAIX VHH Phage Supernatant

Flow Cytometry

Service_NanoAb_CAIX_SUP.jpg (67 KB)



Mouse CD276 VHH Phage Supernatant

Flow Cytometry

Service_NanoAb_CD276_SUP.jpg (67 KB)



Mouse PD-L1 VHH Phage Supernatant

Flow Cytometry

 Service_NanoAb_PD-L1_SUP.jpg (61 KB)

For any inquiry, please contact : OEM@abnova.com