Formalin-PBS and Bouin embedded paraffin human renal tissue pretreated with heat induced epitope retrieval Citrate buffer pH 6.0 in microwave. Dilution of GREM1 polyclonal antibody (Cat # PAB4716) was 1 : 50. Detection method was ABC system or Vectastaint Elite VECTOR. Data and protocol courtesy of Dr. Maria E. Burgos of Universidad Austral de Chile.
Formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded human skeletal muscle tissue reacted with GREM1 polyclonal antibody (Cat # PAB4716) , which was peroxidase-conjugated to the secondary antibody, followed by DAB staining. This data demonstrates the use of this antibody for immunohistochemistry ; clinical relevance has not been evaluated.
ISH and IMH demonstrating GREM1 mRNA and GREM1 protein in crescentic PECs and tubular epithelial cells of patients with pauci-immune crescentic GN. In comparison with normal renal tissue in which there is no expression of GREM1 mRNA (C), proliferating PECs of glomerular crescents show a strong expression of GREM1 mRNA by ISH (A, D) ; and GREM1 protein expression by IMH (B) ; immune competent infiltrating interstitial cells are also strongly positive for GREM1 staining (E) ; and CTGF was also expressed in these glomerular crescentic cells (F).
This gene encodes a member of the BMP (bone morphogenic protein) antagonist family. Like BMPs, BMP antagonists contain cystine knots and typically form homo- and heterodimers. The CAN (cerberus and dan) subfamily of BMP antagonists, to which this gene belongs, is characterized by a C-terminal cystine knot with an eight-membered ring. The antagonistic effect of the secreted glycosylated protein encoded by this gene is likely due to its direct binding to BMP proteins. As an antagonist of BMP, this gene may play a role in regulating organogenesis, body patterning, and tissue differentiation. In mouse, this protein has been shown to relay the sonic hedgehog (SHH) signal from the polarizing region to the apical ectodermal ridge during limb bud outgrowth. [provided by RefSeq
cysteine knot superfamily 1, BMP antagonist 1,down-regulated in Mos-transformed cells,gremlin 1-like protein,gremlin-1,increased in high glucose-2,proliferation-inducing gene 2