Proximity Ligation Analysis of protein-protein interactions between SMAD1 and GSK3B. HeLa cells were stained with anti-SMAD1 rabbit purified polyclonal 1:1200 and anti-GSK3B mouse monoclonal antibody 1:50. Each red dot represents the detection of protein-protein interaction complex, and nuclei were counterstained with DAPI (blue).
The protein encoded by this gene is a serine-threonine kinase, belonging to the glycogen synthase kinase subfamily. It is involved in energy metabolism, neuronal cell development, and body pattern formation. Polymorphisms in this gene have been implicated in modifying risk of Parkinson disease, and studies in mice show that overexpression of this gene may be relevant to the pathogenesis of Alzheimer disease. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene