Mitochondria are the eukaryotic organelles which carry out oxidative respiration in cells and generate most of the energy (ATP) that the cell needs. These organelles are considered the "power plants" of the cells. The number of mitochondria varies greatly in different eukaryotic cells. Cells requiring lots of energy such as muscle, tissue and liver have more mitochondria than cells requiring less energy such as bone. Besides their central role in energy metabolism, they also play a crucial role in many other metabolic tasks, such as signaling, cellular differentiation, apoptosis, cell cycle and cell growth.
Mitochondria are hypothesized to have once been free-living prokaryotes. They have a double membrane similar to the eukaryotic plasma membrane and contain their own DNA, which is organized as several copies of a single, circular chromosome. The inner membrane is extensively folded into structures called cristae, and is studded with proteins, including ATP synthase, transport proteins and a variety of cytochromes responsible for electron transport and oxidative phosphorylation.
Given their functional importance, mitochondria disorders lead to several human diseases, including neorology disorders, cardiac dysfunction, and may play a role in the aging process. Diseases are often caused by genetics or mutations to the mitochondrial DNA and can sometimes be inherited. To better understand the mitochondria and the reason for these disorders, Abnova offers antibodies, proteins, chimera RNAi, and kits to investigate these disorders and the mechanisms that cause them.